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Leaky Gut Syndrome

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Ever heard of Leaky Gut Syndrome? Yes, it is a medical condition. To most people it is not a familiar disorder, but chances are either you, or someone you know has it. Here's what happens. As you eat food, it is digested in the stomach, passes on to the intestines. You receive nutritional benefit from foods when food/nutrients are absorbed through the intestinal walls, where the nutrients enter the blood stream, then delivered to individual cells.

Problems occur when the intestinal walls become inflamed, which causes a separating of the cells, which allows partially digested foods and bacteria to enter the blood stream. Compound this problem with the fact that most people have a problem with constipation, and you will see that what is allowed to enter the blood stream was only meant for the toilet. Can you imagine drinking a cup of filthy toilet water per day? Well, that is similar to the effects of Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Now, when this filthy mess hits the blood stream the immune system is alerted that "foreign invaders" are present, and goes about its business to neutralize the threat. When this happens, the food you are eating for health and wellness becomes the enemy as antibodies attack the food/filth, and now your food becomes an antigen or allergen. In other words, you begin to develop food allergies.

To make matters worse, the antigen/allergen complexes settle in specific sites in your body and can cause arthritis in that area, and can contribute to degenerative disorders such as chronic fatigue, immune disorders, kidney disorders, liver disorders, Lupus, multiple sclerosis, and thyroid disorders. You see, what is happening is that your immune system is so busy fighting the enemy (your food), that it doesn't have time to protect you against other problems.

What are some of the causes of Leaky Gut Syndrome?

1. Drugs, Pathogenic Bacteria, Candida, and/or Parasites - All can cause a chronic irritation in the intestinal walls.

Antibiotics, aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs, and excessive laxatives are some of the most common drugs that can cause a chronic irritation in the intestinal walls, but in truth the list seems endless. A safe rule of thumb is to talk to your health care provider about using natural means whenever possible, and using drugs only for acute situations.

Drugs such as antibiotics, too much sugar, toxic chemicals, food additives, and polluted water are some of the causes for an overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria, is also known as "unfriendly bacteria," and usually responds well to "friendly bacteria" such as L-acidophilus, bifidus, bulgaricus, etc.

2. When the "unfriendly" bacteria take over, you generally also have Candida, which can produce acetaldehyde, which damages membranes, and can contribute to many serious disorders such as leaky gut syndrome- Parasites are not as uncommon as most people believe and can cause many health disorders, specifically leaky gut syndrome.

3. Intestinal Mucosa protects the intestinal walls, and acts as a barrier to help stop the absorption of toxic chemicals. However, when these toxic chemicals reach a certain point, especially when constipation is a chronic problem, the mucosa lining becomes compromised.

What types of toxic chemicals are the worst? Some of the worst offenders are pesticides, food additives, contaminated water supply (the average city's "safe" water contains over 800 toxic chemicals including flouride), alcohol, coffee, dyes, and preservatives.

4. Liver - The liver filters out toxins, but when one has Leaky Gut Syndrome, those toxins that were sent to the intestines for elimination are reabsorbed into the system, causing the liver to work overtime trying to re-detoxify and eliminate. When there is a chronic overload of toxins, they are stored in the body's tissues, setting up sites of infection. Teeth roots (needing root canals) and heart valves (why you need to take antibiotics prior to dental work) are the most susceptible to infection. (I invite you to request a booklet from our company regarding the serious reasons we all should `cleanse' our bodies at least two times yearly, and, it's called "Nutritional Detoxification of Colon and Liver. Your "blood" will thank you!)So, basically we have a cycle of ingesting toxic substances that disrupt the intestinal flora (friendly bacteria), which causes chronic inflammation of the intestinal walls, which causes the cells to separate, thereby allowing toxins and food to pass into the blood stream, causing an overload of work and exhaustion to the liver and immune system. Eventually these toxins are stored in the tissues and the body's major defense and cleansing systems continue to malfunction as more and more toxins flood the blood stream. Can you see how this might lead to serious diseases?

What to do? DETOXIFY YOUR BODY!

1. Use supplements and tinctures to help detoxify your body. The suggestions are below.

2. Exercise and sweat. Exercising can help to work out the toxins from your tissues, and sweating is another form of toxic elimination. If you have difficulty exercising, start with a sauna or Jacuzzi. Also, exercising will help to relieve constipation. A common sign of extreme toxicity is experiencing light-headedness or nausea when exercising or when warm. This is because the toxins are being released from you tissues. So, talk to your health care provider, and exercise/sweat with caution when experiencing discomfort. The key to detoxification is to take it slow and easy. If exercising makes you sick, back off and do less, but don't stop unless your health care provider recommends it. If you can't exercise for 20 minutes per day, try 10, or 5, or even 3 minutes.

3. Diet - Sorry folks, but there is no way around it. The old saying, "Garbage in, Garbage Out," does NOT apply to Leaky Gut Syndrome. It is more like "Garbage in, Garbage stored in the tissues." Begin by eating at least 40 grams of fiber per day. If raw vegetables are difficult you can supplement with psyllium seed husks available as capsules in you health food store or Metamucil™ at your corner drug store. Follow the Candida diet that follows. My personal preference is Metamucil because the powdered form is easier to judge the amount by the amount of water added. Sometimes capsules can backfire because we're not inclined to drink as much water swallowing them. As a matter of fact, a lot of my clients have a tendency to think they're "not working" simply because of the lack of water. Remember, the amount of daily water consumption is based upon your total body weight, then, divide that in half. Convert those pounds into ounces and that's exactly how much YOUR body's needs are daily. So, "drink up" with lots of fiber! Your body will thank you!

4. Protocol ­ Healing leaky gut isn't all that difficult. First, you have to "band-aid" the portion of the gut that is porous to help the healing process. The simplest way is ¼ cup of Aloe Vera juice in the morning and evening. The cheap "stuff" in most Wal-Mart stores is not a good idea. It tastes bad, and, adding preservatives to Aloe Vera Juice, at least to me, doesn't make any sense at all. We wholesale George's brand at Life Sources' because it works, and, tastes just like water. Assuming there is no parasitic activity (which is a huge assumption) taking Life Sources' Alpha Factor has been clinically proven to heal leaky gut. Immediately begin taking probiotics (l-acidophilus, bulgaricus, etc.). You may also purchase Life Sources' Probiotics online or direct from Life Sources.

FIBER (The difference between soluble and insoluble)

What your mother calls roughage, scientists and dieticians know as fiber. An indigestible complex carbohydrate found only in plant foods, fiber in itself has no calories because the body cannot absorb it. Playing many roles--from helping to alleviate occasional constipation to providing us a feeling of fullness, to keeping blood sugar levels constant--fiber is important in our diets. There are two types of dietary fiber: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber forms a gel when mixed with liquid and helps restore regularity. Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water and moves through your digestive system quickly and largely intact. It helps prevent occasional constipation and moves waste toxins through the colon more efficiently so they can be eliminated from the body.

Important; Keep in mind, as you read the following information that even though fruits are mentioned, it doesn't necessarily mean you are a candidate for eating them. Once the c-albicans (candidiasis ­ or, known as Leaky Gut Syndrome) is under control, they may be added one at a time. A follow-up blood analysis is always a good idea making sure the yeast isn't beginning to take over; that's when the trouble can begin all over again!)

Good sources of soluble fiber:
- Oats
- Dried beans and peas
- Barley
- Fruits (oranges and apples)
- Psyllium husks

Good sources of insoluble fiber:
- Wheat bran
- Whole-grain cereals and breads
- Corn bran
- Flax seeds
- Vegetables

The secret to getting the recommended daily allowance of fiber is to eat a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of high-fiber foods. Don't worry about choosing a specific type of fiber--many foods, such as oats and flax seeds, are rich in both soluble and insoluble fiber. If you follow the USDA dietary guidelines and eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables and six servings of grains per day, you "may" be getting the recommended amount. However, due to our busy lifestyles we must include a good water soluble fiber along with Life Sources' Probiotic when we are faced with inflammation due to the "Leaky Gut Syndrome". Yes, unfortunately, most Americans suffer from this inflammatory disorder, and fiber is probably one of the greatest and most important things we need to take while maintaining optimum digestive health.

Here are some easy ways to increase fiber in your diet:

  • Start the day with whole grain cereal. Top with wheat germ, bananas, raisins or berries. (Leave out the fresh fruit if you are just beginning the Candida Diet, as the sugar in the fruit will only exacerbate the inflammation.)
  • Try to eat your vegetables raw, as cooking can reduce fiber content.
  • Avoid peeling fruits and vegetables.
  • Eat liberal amounts of food that contain unprocessed grain, such as whole-wheat products.
  • Add beans to soups, stews, and salads.
  • Keep your home stocked with fresh and dried fruit for snacks.
  • Look for foods labeled "high in," "rich in," or "excellent source of" fiber.
  • Always take a dietary fiber supplement on a daily basis for intestinal and especially heart health!
  • Be sure to increase your fiber intake gradually and drink water according to ½ your body weight converted into ounces of "purified" Magnetized Water per day.
  • Always drink your water magnetized! Life Sources carries these magnetized water pads and they will last forever as long as they are cared for, i.e., not placing into a freezer. Plastic or glass containers are recommended.

Altered Immunity & The Leaky Gut Syndrome
By Dr Zoltan P Rona MD, MSc

The leaky gut syndrome is a name given to a very common health disorder in which the basic organic defect (lesion) is an intestinal lining which is more permeable (porous) than normal. The abnormally large spaces present between the cells of the gut wall allow the entry of toxic material into the blood stream that would, in healthier circumstances, be repelled and eliminated.

The gut becomes leaky in the sense that bacteria, fungi, parasites and their toxins, undigested protein, fat and waste normally not absorbed into the bloodstream in the healthy state, pass through a damaged, hyper permeable, porous or "leaky" gut. This can be verified by special gut permeability urine tests, microscopic examination of the lining of the intestinal wall as well as the bloodstream with phase contrast or dark field microscopy of living whole blood.

Why is leaky gut syndrome important? The leaky gut syndrome is almost always associated with autoimmune disease and reversing autoimmune disease depends on healing the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Any other treatment is just symptom suppression. An autoimmune disease is defined as one in which the immune system makes antibodies against its own tissues. Diseases in this category include lupus, alopecia, rheumatoid arthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, vitiligo, thyroditis, vasculitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, urticaria (hives), diabetes and Raynaud's disease.Physicians are increasingly recognizing the importance of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of allergic or autoimmune disease. Understanding the leaky gut phenomenon not only helps us with safe and effective therapies to bring the body back into balance. Due to larger than normal spaces between the cells of the gut wall, larger than usual protein molecules are absorbed before they have a chance to be completely broken down as occurs when the intestinal lining is intact. The immune system starts making antibodies against these larger molecules because it recognizes them as foreign, invading substances. The immune system starts treating them as if they had to be destroyed. Antibodies are made against these proteins derived from previously harmless foods. Human tissues have antigenic sites very similar to those on foods, bacteria, parasites, candida or fungi.

The antibodies created by the leaky gut phenomenon against these antigens can get into various tissues and trigger an inflammatory reaction when the corresponding food is consumed or the microbe is encountered. Autoantibodies are thus created and inflammation becomes chronic. If this inflammation occurs at a joint, autoimmune arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis) develops. If it occurs in the brain, myalgic encephalomyletis (a.k.a. chronic fatigue syndrome) may be the result. If it occurs in the blood vessels, vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels) is the resulting autoimmune problem. If the antibodies start attacking the lining of the gut itself, the result may be colitis or Crohn's disease. If it occurs in the lungs, asthma is triggered on a delayed basis every time the individual consumes the food which triggered the production of the antibodies in the first place. It is easy to see that practically any organ of the body tissue can become affected by food allergies created by the leaky gut. Symptoms, especially those seen in conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, can be multiple and severely debilitating.

The inflammation that causes the leaky gut syndrome also damages the protective coating of the IgA family normally present in a healthy gut. Since IgA helps us ward off infections, with leaky gut problems we become less resistant to viruses, bacteria, parasites and candida. These microbes are then able to invade the bloodstream and colonize almost any body tissue or organ. When this occurs in the gums; periodontal disease results. If it happens in the jaw, tooth extraction or root canals might be necessary to cure infection.

In addition to the creation of food allergies by the leaky gut, the bloodstream is invaded by bacteria, fungi and parasites that, in the healthy state, would not penetrate the protective barrier of the gut. These microbes and their toxins, if present in large enough amounts, can overwhelm the liver's ability to detoxify. This results in syndromes such as confusion, memory loss, brain fog, or facial swelling when the individual is exposed to a perfume or to cigarette smoke that he or she has had no adverse reactions to prior to the development of leaky gut syndrome.

Leaky gut syndrome also creates a long list of mineral deficiencies because the various carrier proteins present in the gastrointestinal tract that are needed to transport minerals to the blood are damaged by the inflammation process. For example, magnesium deficiency (low red blood cell magnesium) is quite a common finding in conditions like fibromyalgia despite a high magnesium intake through the diet and supplementation. If the carrier protein for magnesium is damaged, magnesium deficiency develops as the result of malabsorption. Muscle pain and spasms can occur as a result. Similarly, zinc deficiency due to malabsorption can result in hair loss or baldness as occurs in alopecia areata. Copper deficiency can occur in an identical way leading to high blood cholesterol levels and osteoarthritis. Further, bone problems develop as a result of the malabsorption of calcium, boron, silicon and manganese.

The Causes

The leaky gut syndrome is basically caused by the inflammation of the gut lining. This inflammation is usually brought about by the following:

Antibiotics because they lead to the overgrowth of abnormal flora in the gastrointestinal tract (bacteria, parasites, candida, fungi; alcohol and caffeine (strong gut irritants); foods and beverages contaminated by parasites like giardia lamblia, cryptosporidium, blastocystis hominis and other food and beverage contaminated by bacteria like helicobacter pylori, klebsiella, citrobacter, pseadomoas and other chemicals in fermented and processed food (dyes, preservatives, peroxidized fats);enzyme deficiencies (e.g. celiac disease, lactase deficiency causing lactose intolerance) NSAIDS (non-steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs) like ASA, ibuprofen, indomethancin, etc.); prescription corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone); high refined carbohydrate diet - (e.g. candy bars, cookies, cake, soft drinks, white bread); prescription hormones like birth control pills; mold and fungal mytoxins in stored grains, fruit and refined carbohydrates.

The leaky gut syndrome can cause the malabsorption of many important micronutrients. The inflammatory process causes swelling (edema) and the presence of many noxious chemicals, all of which can block the absorption of vitamins and essential amino acids. A leaky gut does not absorb the nutrients properly. Bloating, gas and cramps occur as do a long list of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Eventually, systemic complaints like fatigue, headaches, memory loss, poor concentration or irritability develop.

Prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics, especially when taken for extended periods of time, wipe out all the gut friendly bacteria that provide protection against fungi and amoebic (parasitic) infections, helping the body break down complex foods and synthesize vitamins like B12 and biotin. Since the friendly bowel flora is killed off, the body now has no local defense against parasites or fungi that are normally held in check. This then quickly develops and these may trigger the signs and symptoms of arthritis, eczema, migraines, asthma or other forms of immune dysfunction. Other common symptoms of this bowel flora imbalance and leaky gut syndrome are bloating and gas after meals and alternating constipation and diarrhea. This set of symptoms is usually labeled as IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) or spastic bowel disease and treated symptomatically by general practitioners and gastroenterologists with antispasmodic drugs, tranquilizers or different types of soluble (pysllium) and insoluble (bran) fiber.

The Leaky Gut and IBS

The mainstream thinking on IBS is that it is caused by stress. Irritable Bowel Syndrome is the number one reason for general practitioner referrals to specialists. In well over 80% of the cases, tests like intestinal permeability test (a special urine test involving the determination of the absorption rates of two sugars called lactulose and mannitol), CDSA or live cell phase contrast microscopy reveal the presence of an overgrowth of fungi, parasites or pathogenic bacteria. The one celled parasite, blastocystis hominis and different species of candida are the most common microbes seen in IBS. The only stress associated with IBS is that which is generated by leaky gut syndrome. If allowed to persist without correct treatment, IBS can progress into more serious disorders like the candidasis syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities, chronic fatigue syndrome, many autoimmune diseases and even cancer. If treated medically, IBS is rarely cured. To treat it correctly, natural treatments work best and must include the removal of the cause, improvement of gastrointestinal function and healing the lining of the gut.

How to reverse Leaky Gut syndrome

Band-Aid treatment with corticosteroids, prescription antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs may be temporarily life saving for acute episode of pain, bleeding or severe inflammation as occurs in lupus or colitis. In the long run, however, none of these treatments do anything to heal the leaky gut problem. To reverse the leaky gut syndrome the diet must be completely changed to one which is as hypoallergenic as possible. Sugar, white flour products, all gluten containing grains (especially wheat, barley, oats and rye), milk and dairy products, high fat foods, caffeine products, alcohol and hidden food allergies determined by testing must all be eliminated for long periods of time (several years in the more severe cases).

Treatment might also include the use of natural antibiotics: (Ameriden's Olive Leaf Extract, Sovereign Silver (colloidal silver), garlic, anti-parasitics: cloves, wormwood, black walnut) depending on the type of infection which shows up on objective tests. It is rare that victims require prescription drugs for these infections and they should be discouraged. The drugs are usually expensive, have unpleasant side effects and are best reserved for life threatening conditions. Leaky gut syndrome patients can help themselves by chewing their food more thoroughly, following the basic rules of food combining, eating frequent small meals rather than three large ones and taking more time with their meals. Gastrointestinal function can be improved with a juice fast or a hypoallergenic diet and supplements like lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidus as well as FOS (fructooligosaccharides) derived from Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, the dahlia plant or burdock root. Aloe Vera Juice is extremely important taken at least 2 times daily ­ recommended daily amounts are ¼ C first thing in a.m., and ¼ C before retiring.

Beneficial supplements for leaky gut syndrome.

Natural digestive enzymes - from plant (e.g. bromelain, papain) or pancreatic animal tissues (porcine, bovine, lamb) and aloe vera juice with high MPS concentration (a good brand is George's Aloe Vera Juice); stomach enhancing supplements- pepsin, glutamic acid, stomach bitters, apple cider vinegar; amino acids - L-glutamine, Life Sources' Daily Health Plus formula contains these that also boost the glutathione levels for liver detoxification, essential fatty acids - milled flax, flax seed oil, evening primrose oil, borage oil, olive oil, fish oil, black current seed oil; soluble fiber - pysillium seed husks and powder, apple and citrus pectin, the rice derived gamma oryzanol; antioxidants- carotenoids, (NEVER take a Vitamin B complex with B-12 ­ more on this later) Vitamin C, E, zinc, selenium, germanium, Co-enzyme Q10, bioflavinoids, especially quercetin, catechin, hesperidin, rutin and proanthocyanidins (pycnogonals, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, (found in Life Sources' OPC-165™) bilberry; herbs and plant extracts (see ingredients in Life Sources' Immuzyme®) - kudzu, various high chlorophyll containing green drinks like spirulina, chlorella and blue-green algae, burdock, slippery elm, Turkish rhubarb, sheep sorrel, licorice root, ginger root, goldenseal, bismuth and bentonite.

Alpha Factor

Life Sources' Alpha Factor colostrum has been clinically proven to heal leaky gut and increase immune response. (See the booklet Alpha Factor).Due to the increasing recognition of chronic fatigue syndrome, the leaky gut syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity, a number of supplement companies have been marketing powdered hypoallergenic formulations containing most of the nutrients mentioned above in one convenient package. Some brand names include UltrabalanceB, UltraClear, SustainB, UltraClear PlusB, Pro-Cleanse, Daily Health® Formula (from Life-Sources, Inc.) Pro-Support, and AntiClear. The products are only available through natural health practitioners like chiropractors, nutritional doctors and naturopaths. If you suspect you may be suffering from leaky gut syndrome, the most important thing to do is get yourself tested by a natural health care practitioner. A personalized natural program of diet and supplements can then be instituted to help you reverse this debilitating condition.

Candida Diet

Without strict adherence to the following diet, no anti-candida drug or treatment will succeed.

(1) Avoid added sugars (including fructose, honey, molasses, fruit-juice sweeteners, etc.) and all sugar-sweet foods and snacks, including cakes, cookies, candies, desserts, sodas, fruit-juice and ice-cream, unless they are made with a sugar-substitute like Stevia or Xylitol extract, which is a natural sweetener, available at health food stores. If you can cut out sugars for 3 days, their 'spell' will be broken and you will be able to resist them quite easily, especially once any thyroid, chromium and/ or manganese deficiencies are corrected. 1-2 servings of whole-fruits per day (except the very sweetest kinds, like grapes, watermelon and mango) are OK.

(2) Avoid white-starch foods, like white bread, cakes, cookies, white pasta, white rice, potatoes w/o their skins, and all refined flours, etc. Whole-grain flour, in moderation, is acceptable, unless you are a 'carbohydrate addict'; also potatoes with their peels, whole-grain brown or wild rice, whole-grain pasta (usually available in the deli section of supermarkets), etc. We see no reason to avoid other yeasts - they could help to contain candida yeast. Avoid dairy products, except live culture yogurts. We believe some of the prohibitions bandied around are "old wives' tales" with no scientific evidence to support them. Avoiding them puts an unnecessary burden on the patient, discouraging adherence to any form of anti-candida diet and derailing the whole treatment-effort.

(3) Increase your intake of essential oils, especially. omega-3 oils, which are very lacking in the Western World's diet. These include: Fish oils, and oily fish, like salmon, mackerel, tuna-in-oil, sardines-in-oil, etc.; (our choice is Squalamine) Flax-seed, borage and evening primrose oils. One tablespoon or two 1,000 mg capsules of any of these, twice daily, should do the trick. Some of these oils can be used as salad-dressing, instead of olive or canola oil, or on whole-grain breads or baked potato, instead of butter. Avocadoes, nuts, olives and olive-oil, canola and other vegetable oils are mostly omega-6, which are also good but not as lacking in our diets.

(4) Avoid antibiotics and cortisone-type prescriptions if at all possible.

Treatments

(1) Probiotics (or Primadophilus or Bifidus capsules), 700-1,000mg (or at least 1 million organisms) after breakfast and after supper daily, either indefinitely or at least for 6 months. Life Sources' Probiotics contain 2 billion organisms. This and the above diet are usually enough to prevent - or prevent the return of a previous - overgrowth of candida yeast in the blood and intestines.

(2) Colloidal Silver ­ Argentyn 23 is best (<0.001 micron particle-size, 10 ppm), one teaspoonful before breakfast and supper daily, for 3-9 months (until the antibody titers are normal). Some say that a few drops held in the mouth can be as effective as a whole teaspoonful swallowed (and is therefore much cheaper) but, so far, we are not able to confirm or refute that. We have not seen any evidence of 'argyria', a silver-grey discoloration of the skin that is supposed to follow. This substance was used as an antimicrobial agent before we had antibiotics, and was quite safe. (Be sure to request information directly from our manufacturer for clinical data.)

(3) Ameriden©­ The Original Olive Leaf Extract (T.O.O.L.E.) The amount would vary according to the amount of Candidiasis observed in client's blood. Usually, 1 every 2 to 3 hours (waking) is sufficient, and, clients have remarked as to how much more energy they felt during this time. Usually, after the first few weeks, the amount can lessen to approximately 1 taken 4xs daily. Be sure to check with your health care professional for further information.

(4) OPC-165 -are natural anti-inflammatory and research has shown that the daily use of OPC-165™ reduces free radical damage (a major cause of aging and chronic illnesses) and precursors to more than 85 diseases by helping boost the immune system. More doctors use the Life Source's OPC-165™ in pre and post operative protocols since OPC-165™ use appears to significantly reduce the healing time, decrease scar tissue and post-op pain. OPC-165™ have been studied for over 35 years and even in doses as high as 20,000 mg per day no toxic side effects have been observed.

References

Crook WG: CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME and The YEAST CONNECTION. Jackson, TN: Professional Books, 1992.

Jesop C: The short, baffling mystery of chronic fatigue syndrome. Chapter 1 in LEARNING ABOUT CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME (Bolles EB, ed.): 7-27. NewYork, NY: The Dell Medical Library, 1990.

Solomkin JS: Pathogenesis and management of Candida infection syndromes in non-neutropenic patients. NEW HORIZONS 1 (1993), 2 (May): 202-13.

Karwowska W et al. Antibody levels to Candida Albicans carbohydrate and major cytoplasmic antigens isolated from standard and patient strains. ANNALS OF IMMUNOLOGY 1984, 135D: 145-59.

Schonheyder H et al. IgA and IgG serum antibodies to Candida Albicans in women of child-bearing age. SABOURAUDIA 1983, 21: 223-31.

Kostiala AAI, Kostiala I. ELISA for IgM-, IgG- and IgA-class antibodies against Candida Albicans antigens: Development of, and comparison with other, methods. SABOURAUDIA 1981, 19: 13-34.

Dommisse JV. Cure of chronic fatigue syndrome by the correction of vitamin-B12 deficiency, mineral imbalances and candida yeast serum antibody elevations. Tucson (1840 E River Rd, Ste 210): THE NATURAL MEDICINE NEWSLETTER, Vol.1, No.1, Sept., 1996; and Vol.2, No.1, Sept., 1997.17 Nov. '96 Revised 13 Feb., '97; 26 Oct., '97; and 11 October, 1998

Gittleman, A L - Guess what came to Dinner - parasites and your health. Garden City Park, NY Avery 1993.

Gottchal , Elain. Breaking the vicious Cycle. Intestinal Health through diet. Kirkton, Ont, Kirkton Press 1994

Martin, Jeanne Marie and Rona, Zoltan P. The complete Candida Yeast Guidebook. Rocklin, California. Prima Books 1996

Robert L et al. The effects of procyandolic oligomers on vascular permeability. A study using quantitative morphology. Pathol Biol. 38.608-616: 1990

Rogers, Sherry A. Finally Healing the immune System. Macrobiotics Today. Sept/Oct 1995 pp 16-20